On This Day in Black History: October 23
Virginia emancipated slaves who fought for independence during the Revolutionary War.
Three hundred mulattos rebelled briefly in Saint Domingue. The rebels were arrested and the leaders were executed.
George William Gordon was executed, despite a lack of evidence, for his alleged part in the Morant Bay rebellion in Jamaica.
The Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes (founded in 1910) merged with the Committee for the Improvement of Industrial Conditions Among Negroes in New York (founded in 1906) and the National League for the Protection of Colored Women (founded in 1905) to form the National League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes. The name was later changed to the National Urban League, as it is known today.
Afro-Brazilian soccer great Pelé was born.
Jackie Robinson signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
The NAACP presented its petition on racism, "An Appeal to the World," to the United Nations.
In New York, the NAACP picketed the Stork Club in support of Josephine Baker, who was refused service because of her race.
During the Springhill, Nova Scotia mine disaster, Maurice Ruddick sang, told jokes and did anything to keep spirits high and boost morale when he and six other miners were trapped in 4,000 meters underground for nine days.
The FBI began their investigation of Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) for communist ties.
Charles Stuart, a white man, claimed that he and his pregnant wife had been shot by a black robber in Boston; Carol Stuart and her prematurely delivered baby died. Subsequently, in a bizarre series of events, Stuart was implicated in the shootings—his brother revealed that Charles asked him to kill Carol weeks before the incident, and later Charles leaped to his death from a Boston bridge.
African leaders gathered in Nigeria for the formal launch of the New Africa Initiative, aimed at reviving ailing their economies.
The Nigerian government rejected the World Court ruling that granted possession of the disputed oil-rich Bakassi peninsula to Cameroon.

Today's Featured Page
Askia Mohammed I (Askia the Great)
Askia Mohammed I encouraged learning and literacy. Under Askia, Timbuktu experienced a cultural revival and flourished as a center of learning. More...

Previously Featured Pages
Lewis Temple
Today, Lewis Temple is presented as one of New Bedford's most ingenious citizens. In 1987, a life-size statue of Lewis Temple was erected on the lawn of the New Bedford Free Public Library. More...

Behanzin, the King of Dahomey, chose the strategy of confrontation to resist French occupation of his kingdom. More...

The Buffalo Soldiers
The story of the Buffalo Soldiers—their unsurpassed courage and patriotism—will live forever in the annals of the history of the United States. More...

Candace of Meroe
Unlike the queens of Egypt who derived power from their husbands, the Queens of Kush were independent rulers, to the extent that it was often thought that Meroe never had a king. Four of these queens—Amanerinas, Amanishakhete, Nawidemak and Maleqereabar—became distinctively known as Candaces, a corruption of the word Kentake. More...

Curt Flood
Curt Flood was the star center fielder of the St. Louis Cardinals who challenged baseball's reserve system all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. More...

Dr. Mae Jemison
Dr. Mae Jemison became the first African-American woman astronaut to participate in a NASA shuttle mission. More...

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