On This Day in Black History: November 20
1665
Buzzed, leader of the quilombos (refuge for runaway slaves) of Palmares, was assassinated.
1695
Zumbi dos Palmares, the Brazilian leader of a 100-year-old rebel slave group, was betrayed by an old companion, hunted down, taken prisoner and beheaded.
1865
Blacks held the Colored People's Convention of the State of South Carolina in Zion Church, Charleston, where they demanded equal rights and repeal of the Black Codes.
1867
Howard University was founded in Washington, D.C.
1923
Garrett Morgan patented his traffic signal.
1955
The Maryland National Guard was ordered desegregated.
1962
President Kennedy issued Executive Order 11063, outlawing racial discrimination in federally funded housing.
1965
The U.N. Security Council called for a boycott of Rhodesia.
1973
The gravesite of Mary Seacole, a Jamaican nurse who served in the Crimean War, was restored in England.
1976
Angola, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia signed an agreement on regional defence cooperation.
1976
Gymnast Dominique Dawes was born.
1989
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favour of reverse discrimination suits. The Supreme Court at that time was moving in a generally conservative direction after President Ronald Reagan promoted William H. Rehnquist from associate to chief justice in 1986. With three other Reagan appointees usually voting with him, Rehnquist was able to overturn some important precedents. Under Rehnquist, the Court made it clear that it would take a dim view of most affirmative action policies.
1994
The Lusaka Protocol was signed by the Angolan government and the rebel group UNITA, ending 19 years of civil war.
1995
The European Union imposed an arms embargo and aid freeze on Nigeria, in condemnation of the November 10 execution of human rights activist Ken Saro-Wiwa and his eight co-defendants.

Today's Featured Page
Dr. Meredith C. Gourdine
Born in 1929 in Newark, New Jersey, Meredith Gourdine was a physicist, pioneer researcher and inventor in the field of electrogasdynamics, a process dealing with the action of charged particles moving through a gas stream. More...


Previously Featured Pages
Philip Emeagwali
Philip Emeagwali, a Nigerian presently living in the US, won the International Gordon Bell Prize in computer science. More...

Dr. Percy Julian
Born in 1899 in Montgomery, Alabama, Dr. Percy Julian's research yielded more than 100 patents. He created derivative drugs to treat glaucoma and arthritis at a reasonable cost. His research on the soybean led to discoveries in the manufacture of drugs, hormones, vitamins, paint and paper. More...

The Rastafarian Movement
The Rastafarian Movement takes its name from Ras Tafari, later crowned as Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia in 1930. Rastafarian philosophy stresses anti-colonialism and an affirmation of African social and cultural history. It offers both historical and political alternatives and its focus is on Africa. More...

Samori Ture
Born about 1830 in Sanankaro, a village southeast of Kankan in present-day Guinea, Samori Ture chose the path of confrontation, using warfare and diplomacy, to deal with the French colonial incursion into West Africa and established himself as the leading African opponent of European imperialism. More...

The Scramble for Africa
The Scramble for Africa was powered not so much by conditions in Africa, but by the economic, social and political conditions in Europe during the second half of the nineteenth century. In economic terms, it was "not so much as an overproduction of ... goods in Europe as an undersupply of raw materials". More...

Mabel Fairbanks
In 1977, Mabel Fairbanks was the first African American inducted into the U.S. Figure Skating Hall of Fame. More...


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